Verification of codes: Agreement with exact results or with results obtained using different codes. No comparison with experiment is made. The input given for the benchmark includes a set of physical quantities that uniquely specify the benchmark. Comparison of results can reflect differences in assumptions or approximations, as well as reflecting coding or numerical errors.
Validation of models: Establish the validity of approximations used in specific, well-defined physical models by demonstrating agreement of computed results with experimental measurements. This can also benefit from the comparison of computed results obtained using different physical models.
Benchmarking: Establish well-defined reference points from theory and experiment, often the key step in verification and validation.
Uncertainty quantification: Process of identifying and quantitatively characterizing the uncertainties in a set of processes based on experiment, theory, and simulation.
Reproducibility and Replicability: NAS report
MICCoM-3 validation and benchmarking tasks:
MICCoM-2 validation tasks:
MICCoM-1 validation tasks: